Hesperetin is a natural flavonoid, widely present in the fruit of Rutaceae. The main active ingredient in the fruit of the plant, hesperetin is the glycosyl ligand of hesperidin. It contains ketone carbonyl group, ether group, methoxy group and multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups, which makes it have a wide range of pharmacological effects. Hesperetin does not accumulate in any organ, and is safe to use with no obvious side effects. Early studies on the pharmacological effects of hesperetin mainly focused on antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-viral, anti-allergic, lipid-regulating, immune-enhancing and anti-cancer aspects. In recent years, it has been reported that hesperetin and its derivatives also have anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-Parkinson's disease, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-venom hemagglutinin, anti-lung, kidney, liver fibrosis and some new tumor inhibition, etc.
1）Anti-tumor effect: Hesperetin has anti-oxidative effect, which can prevent cancer caused by genetic changes caused by these factors. Promote the efflux of P-glycoprotein-mediated drugs from tumor cells, and flavonoids (hesperetin, etc.) can change the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to vincristine, and it is also related to its concentration. Low concentrations of flavonoids can reduce the uptake of vincristine by brain capillary endothelial cells; on the contrary, high concentrations can promote it.
2）Hypolipidemic effect: Hesperetin can inhibit the function of cholesterol generation enzymes and esterase enzymes, thereby achieving the effect of lowering blood lipids.
3) Antioxidant effect: Hesperetin can avoid the harm caused by peroxidation by removing peroxynitrite ions.
4) Anti-inflammatory effect: Hesperetin can inhibit the mediating effect of inflammatory mediators, thereby indirectly inhibiting the inflammatory response. Compared with hesperidin, hesperetin has a stronger anti-inflammatory effect, and hesperetin C7 linked to rutose has an effect on its anti-inflammatory activity.
5) Cardiovascular protection: Hesperetin has the effect of reducing blood lipids and vascular permeability, and can prevent thrombosis. Hesperetin can also protect endothelial cells from hypoxia by stimulating certain mitochondrial enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase, preventing coagulation caused by endothelial cell necrosis and inducing thrombosis. In addition, hesperetin promotes antiplatelet coagulation activity by inhibiting the phosphorylation of PLCγ2 and its downstream signaling, which can prevent the formation of thrombus and is beneficial to the cardiovascular system.
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